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建筑与音乐论文

发布时间:2021-02-20 05:02:22 浏览数: 关键词: 音乐论文 建筑 论文 音乐 建筑与音乐论文

 建筑与音乐论文

建筑与音乐带给我们的启示

—浅谈唐朝的建筑与音乐

唐朝是世界公认的中国最强盛的时代之一唐在文化、政治、经济、外交等方面都有辉煌的成就,是当时世界上最强大的国家。

关中地理形胜的特点是高峻中有开阔的伸展,唐长安城也因此显示出不同于前代都城的布局特点。《类编长安志》卷二《京城·城制度》载:“(隋文帝)自开皇二年六月十八日,始诏规建制度。三年正月十五日,又诏用其月十八日移入新邑。所司依式先筑宫城,次筑皇城,亦日子城,次筑外郭城。”《京城·再筑京兆城》载:“诏宇文恺,则建大兴城,先修宫城,以安帝居,次筑子城,以安百官,置台、省、寺、卫,不与民同居,又筑外郭京城一百一十坊两市,以处百姓。”长安城按照宫城一皇城一外郭城顺序依次建造,宫城位于全城正北,皇城在宫城之南,外郭城则以皇城为中心向东西南三面展开。对于宫城居郭之西而市在郭北的传统都城制度而言,坐北朝南的格局是个重大突破。它使宫城雄踞龙首原高坡,造成独尊全城的气势。它符合天子据北而立,面南而治的儒家礼治思想,也是朝廷举行元旦大朝会的实际需要。长安城还一改“城”、“郭”混居的旧制,在宫城之南专建皇城设置行政衙署,并大大扩展外郭城面积@,明确宫城、皇城、外郭城的界限与职能,形成北拥宫城,南临皇城,以南北向中轴线为准东西对称的棋盘式整体格局。通过外郭城与郊野,形成一个开阔而整饬的审美空间——雄阔的地貌,错落的层城,尊贵的君臣,欢乐的百姓,它们表现出政治的和谐秩序,长安的和谐建筑,诗歌的和谐美感,其核心则在于一种新的社会秩序的形成与和谐。宫城是长安城的核心,皇城则是仅次于宫城的第二重城。它北仰宫城,南俯外郭,是百官理政的中央衙署。其建筑格局不仅便于拱卫宫城,也便于君臣处理政务。百官班于殿庭左右,巡使二人分莅于钟鼓楼下,先一品班,次二品班,次三品班,次四品班,次五品班朝罢,皇帝步入东序门,然后放仗。繁缛隆重的早朝是政治生活的重要内容,也是政治情感的重要寄托 。

长安城建筑呈现出多元化,其实,虔诚热烈的礼拜与谨肃恭顺的寓直本来就是唐长安政治生活的两个侧面,祥和精巧与恢弘洒脱本来也是皇城建筑美学的两种风貌,宫城、皇城是唐长安城的核心,外郭城则是长安城的主体,是百姓的生活区域。它的建筑布局有两个特点:(一)由于处在开阔舒缓的小平原,因而得以建成宽敞整齐对称的街衢里坊,展现出宽阔和谐的审美景观;(二)由于坡地起伏造成局部地理环境不和谐,需要修整改造部分洼地、高坡,使长安外郭城的整体布局趋于和谐完善。长安外郭城共有东西向十四条大街,南北向十一条大街,它们笔直宽敞,

长安城有一种视野中的诗美境界,建筑彼此平行又相互交错,将外郭城划分为一百

余坊,呈现出“百千家似围棋局,十二街如种菜畦。”(白居易《登观音台望城诗》,《全唐诗》卷四四八)的网状建筑布局。坊里则是封闭式方形布局,四周环筑坊墙,这固然有

“逋亡奸伪,无所容足”的安全实用功能④;同时,环环套筑、往复相连的坊墙与平直如弦

的宫墙、街衢,也营造出稳固简约、单纯明快的美感氛围。人们在方正如一的宫墙、城墙、

坊墙、街衢中行走,整齐、反复的节奏、韵律传递着强烈的秩序感、归属感与崇高感。大一

统王朝的政治意志,大唐长安的审美理想,都在外郭城这平整、开阔、简明的布局里得到了

尽情的发挥。除了坊里街衢,名胜景区也是外郭城的重要组成部分,对它们的设计更见出宇文恺的独运匠心,也更能体会长安外郭城地理风貌与唐诗审美意境的微妙关系。曲江池是唐

长安城的风景名胜,造就了不少的名篇佳句。如:“桃花细逐杨花落,黄鸟时兼白鸟飞。”

(杜甫《曲江对酒》,《全唐诗》卷二二五)“更到无花最深处,玉楼金殿影参差”(卢纶《曲

江春望》,《全唐诗》卷二七九)等等。其实,曲江最初并非名胜,只是经由宇文恺的精心

设计,始得大放异彩。前文曾述,宇文恺巧妙利用高坡地形,突出宫城、皇城位置,并使局

部建筑之问和谐统一。高坡的设计如是,坡间洼地也需精心规划方能化丑为美。曲江本

是少陵原上的洼地,好似高坡上的疤痕。宇文恺“以其地在京城东南隅,地高不便,故阙

此地,不为居人坊巷,而凿之为池,以厌胜之”固,因地制宜开凿成人工湖供百姓游览。

从玄宗开元年起,朝廷不断扩建曲江池④,以致“四岸皆有行宫台殿,百司廨署”在洼地修筑楼阁固然有助于宴游观赏,同时对凹陷地区也是一种地理补偿,并借此达到长安城整体和谐的美学效果——这正是宇文恺设计长安城的一个重要建筑美学原则。其实,即便同样是高坡,设计的原则也不尽相同。“九五”高坡乐游原虽然高于“九二”高坡龙首原,却无缘成为宫城、皇城基址,只能化为长安城的一道风景。因为按照宇文恺的设计理论,乐游原这条高坡对应《周易》乾卦中“九五:飞龙在天”的卦辞:“九五贵位,不欲常人居之,故置玄都观及兴善寺以镇之。”固于是,宇文恺索性因势利导,将其供给京城士女游乐之用:“其地居京城之最高,四望宽敞,京城之内,俯视指掌。每正月晦日、三月三日、九月九日,京城士女咸就此登赏祓禊。”

长安城的建筑风格与唐诗的都城意象及长安城文化内涵有着密切的联系诗歌艺术与表现对象的关系不是单向度的。地理形胜与建筑格局影响着诗美境界的生成,而诗歌创作一经完成,作为具有独立审美价值的文学作品,唐诗也必将影响到长安城审美、文化内涵的拓展与深化。当然,诗人们对“大长安城”的审美想象与创造并非空穴来风,而是根植于古代都城深厚的文化传统之中。在“大长安城”的文学创造中,“阙”的建筑文化内涵至为关键。

作为一种拱卫宫门的建筑形态,阙本来源于帝王示礼布政的礼制④,也与北朝汉人的坞

堡生活有关④。翔鸾、栖凤双阙因此具有礼教、军事的双重功能④。它们通过飞廊与含

元殿组成“凹”字结构,连同东西两侧的系列建筑群,将含元殿拱卫在中心,造成一种高山

仰止的瞻望视角,给拜谒者以强烈的心灵震撼,这种阙楼拱卫向心正殿的建筑格局遍布整个大明宫乃至长安城:中书省、门下省等行政衙署拱卫朝向宣政殿;翰林院、学士院等议政衙署拱卫朝向紫宸殿等中轴线建筑群;而外郭城则拱卫朝向皇城,皇城拱卫朝向宫城,其实,拱卫向心的建筑语言也体现在整个关中地区。作为人文之阙内涵的延伸,“天成之阙”是古代都城建筑格局中不可或缺的部分。这些环绕宫城的庞大山系是宫城的天设之阙。它体现了古代都城依山面水的传统格局,显示出大一统王朝治达天人的恢弘气魄。这正是唐代诗人借助诗歌之美创造“大长安城”的文化基础,也是唐诗与长安城建筑相互默契的思想根源——通过“北阙”、“南山”意象,我们得以描述长安城及其地理环境的文化特征,得以揭示都城建筑与诗歌表现的象征意义

音乐:唐代音乐的高度发展与繁荣,唐王朝灿烂辉煌的音乐文化及对后来音乐的延续和发展具有重大的意义。

总的来说唐朝音乐具有以下特点:

一、“喉带一声,响传九陌”

唐代声乐舞台,花团锦簇,五彩缤纷澉唱名家许永新、念奴、张红红、何满、陈不谦、张好好等艺人的演唱魅力名不虚传,许永新“喉啭一声.响传九陌”的故事更是世代相传。无论是皇宫中的乐妓、官宦名士的家养歌妓,还是民间歌手,他们优美的歌声把唐朝的声乐舞台装扮得五彩缤纷.

二、“转轴拨弹三两声,未成曲调先有情”

在唐诗中用“转轴拨弹三两声,未成曲调先有情”揭示了高度繁荣的唐代琵琶艺术。的确,像曹妙达、贺怀智、段普本等琵琶演赛名家数不胜数;也有贺若夷、郭沔、刘志方等古琴家手下传出的悠悠静雅的古琴声。脒琵琶、古琴之外.五弦、筚集、莆、笙、箜篌、胡箭、筝、羯鼓等乐器也在唐代广为流传。他们非凡的演奏绝技为人瞩目,不管是民间艺人.还是隐士名家。他们高超的演奏杰技把唐朝的器乐舞台装扮得色彩斑斓。

三、“《霓裳》一曲千峥上,舞破中原始下来”

唐朝是我国歌舞音乐“百花绽放”的时代,它在中原乐舞和西域乐舞长期互相交流与吸收的基础上,形成了我国歌舞音乐的仝盛期。在《教坊记》中记录的三百二十四首乐曲中。很多是当时人们喜闻乐见的大型歌舞音乐。如:《浑脱》、《霓裳羽衣歌》等曲目。其中以《霓裳羽衣曲》最具影响力.其结构分为“散序”六段,是节奏自由的器乐引子;“中序。十八段,快速歌舞:“破”十二段.是由慢新快的歌舞段,规模宏大.场景壮观。可谓“千歌万舞不可敷,就中最爱霓裳舞”。

四、多船乐制隋创立,沿袭至唐十部乐;上下等级“二部伎”,“堂上者生鲞下立”

唐朝音乐在沿袭隋代音乐体制的基础上,多民族音乐大融合,酿成了宫廷燕乐的高度繁荣。据《隋书·音乐志》载:“始开皇初定令.置七部乐:一日国伎,二日清商伎.三日

高丽伎,四日天竺伎,五日安国伎,六日龟兹伎,七日文康技。”至隋炀帝对,增加蔬勒、康国两部乐、彤成九部乐钊,据通典·乐六》载:。至炀帝,乃立清乐、龟兹、西凉、天竺、赓国、蔬勒、安国、高丽、札毕为九部.”至唐太宗(公元627—649年,唐朝第二位皇帝)时.用燕皋代替了隋九部乐中的礼毕(即文康往),形成唐九部乐。相继新增了高昌乐.构成了唐十部乐。637年废除“札毕”,640年又将燕乐列为谱乐之首,成为一个具体的乐部名称。可见,燕乐在唐代音乐中的地位极为低下。

五、规模空前的管理机构+设置完备的音乐机制

唐代音乐机构的期模空前。分设大乐署、鼓吹署、教坊,梨园。大乐署和鼓吹署隶属于唐代最高的行政机构太常寺。即为政府管理的音乐机构.兼管雅乐和俗乐。鼓吹署专管仪仗中的鼓吹音乐.参与祭祀和部分宫廷礼仪活动,兼管百戏。教坊(教坊中则有宫人、掐弹家、内人或前头人之分;)和梨园(梨圊又分宫廷梨园、太常梨园别教院、梨匠新院)则隶属于宫廷管辖.专为皇帝娱乐而奏。该音乐机构内部有严格的训练.有严格的考绩制度,有鲜明的等级区别。据《新唐书·札乐志》载:“唐之盛时,凡乐人.音声人.太常杂户子弟.隶太常及鼓吹署。皆番上,总号音声人.至数万人”。据记载,大乐署的人数最多时可达11447人。

六、盛世唐朝艺海深,问今著作皆有名

唐代艺术极度辉煌.优美的乐章铭刻千秋,遗存专著部部有名。由著作郎元万顷等奉武则天之命于久视元年(700年)编撰的乐律理论专著‘乐书耍录》唐开元年问崔令钦撰写的‘教坊记》:唐代南卓于宜宗丈中二年完成的镄鼓录》,唐代段安节撰写的《乐府杂录》等,均为绝无仅有的历史遗产。强大的唐代帝圆,文学艺术百花齐放t诗、乐、歌、舞五彩缤纷!以奚琴和扎筝两件拉弦乐器的出现.将我国民族器乐的吹、拉,弹、打的演奏憎式带向完备。

唐朝是一个政治稳定的王朝,是一个经济发达的王朝。同时也是一个文学艺术昌盛无比的音乐王朝.

结语:。

唐长安城建筑及音乐与唐代文化特别是唐代唐代诗歌的关系,再次印证了一个古老而朴素的真理:艺术的审美与创造来源于对生活不断的发现、提升当中。生活之所以能持续保持创新的活力与持久的魅力,就在于我们不断给它注入新鲜的血液,这血液就是我们对生活、对未来的理想与希望。而文学创造及其审美意境不仅是滋养理想与希望的血液,也是我们所期待达到的永恒不朽的精神境界。唐诗与唐长安城和唐朝的音乐,是古代诗歌艺术与都城建筑艺术的集大成者,它们彼此交相辉映,相映成趣,相得益彰,共同表现唐朝蓬勃的时代气象。

建筑与音乐的审美通感

来源:《魅力中国》2010年8月第1期

供稿文/尹飞飞1 任璐2

[导读]建筑是视觉艺术,具有空间上的持续感;而音乐是听觉艺术,是在一定的时间过程中延续展开的空间。

期刊文章分类查询,尽在期刊图书馆尹飞飞1 任璐2

(1河南省建筑设计研究院有限公司;2河南省中州大学艺术教育中心,河南 郑州 450000)

摘要:建筑是视觉艺术,具有空间上的持续感;而音乐是听觉艺术,是在一定的时间过程中延续展开的空间。

 音乐在时间中展示空间,建筑在空间中体现时间。欧洲先哲们的曾说过:“音乐是流动的建筑,建筑是凝固的音乐”。

关键词:建筑;音乐;艺术;联系

中图分类号:TU-80 TU-854 文献标识码:A 文章编号:1673-0992(2010)08A-0181-02

一、 音乐是流动的建筑

“音乐是流动的建筑”,是说音乐虽然在时间流动中不停地演奏着,但它的内部却有着严谨的结构和形式美,来源于一定的数量比例关系。古希腊数学家毕达哥拉斯及其学派研究发现,各种不同音阶的高度、长度、力度都是按照一定的数量比例关系构成的,后来他把这种发现推广到建筑上,认为建筑的和谐也与数比有关。毕达哥拉斯以及后来的一些著名的美学家、建筑家都认为,如果建筑物的长度、宽度、体积符合一定的比例关系,就能在视觉上产生类似于音乐的节奏感。德国哲学家黑格尔曾以古希腊建筑三种格式的石柱的美为例,具体说明了由于台基、柱身和檐部的体积、长短以及间距的比例不同,而形成庄重、秀美、富丽等风格区别,这就仿佛乐曲中的歌颂、抒情曲和多声部的合唱一样。这正说明了音乐与建筑都具有一种数比美。

1.重复的技巧

2.结构上的把握

3.音乐创作上的沟通

作曲家在创作乐曲时,的确常常有意或无意地受到建筑艺术的或多或少的影响。贝多芬在创作《英雄交响曲》时,就曾受到巴黎某些建筑群的启示。舒曼在ьE大调《第三交响曲》中就曾想表现科隆大教堂外观的壮丽与雄伟,其中短促而别致的主题仿佛是用音乐再现了哥特式的线条,它贯串于整首乐曲,时而以基本主题形式出现,时而像是极为琐碎的断片,这样就使作品既有一致的构思又有无限多样化的表现,而这种无限多样化的表现正是哥特式建筑的特点。对此,柴可夫斯基曾说:“伟大的音乐家在大教堂绝顶之美的感召下写成的几张谱纸,就能为后代人树立一座刻画人类深刻内心世界的犹如大教堂本身一样的不朽丰碑。”

二、建筑是凝固的音乐

建筑,凝固的音乐。源自于一个古老而优美的传说----在年代久远的欧洲,色雷斯地方出了一位著名的青年歌手奥尔菲斯(Orfeo),他的歌喉是天赋的,并且是第一位给各种木石之物起名字的神,能凭神力使本是一堆死物具有活跃的生命,因而能在奥林匹斯的神圣家族中,受到阿波罗神的青睐。阿波罗受之以七弦竖琴,请文艺女神谬斯为他教授音乐艺术。某天,奥尔菲斯灵感来袭,他弹起了竖琴,其音美妙绝伦,山岳动容,为之起舞;流水敛神,为之助听。被灌注生命的木石为琴声所感染陶醉,立刻依其旋律,平地构筑起幢幢美的建筑物。曲尽而余音袅袅不绝,音乐的节奏和旋律却永远凝固在这些建筑物上了。这一则极具美感的神话说的是建筑的起源,同时它道出了建筑形象与音乐艺术形象间在美学上的联系,使“建筑是凝固的音乐或建筑是无言的音乐”这一美学意味的比喻得以流传。

其实,把建筑比作凝固的音乐,意思是说,如果使音乐的时间流动全都凝固下来,我们从音乐中或说从乐谱中便可以看到诸如严格数学化的比例、对称、均衡等造型特点以及乐曲形式同建筑结构的联系。

1.建筑中的音乐语言

朱光潜在《西方美学史》书中说:“建筑空间和形象中的抑扬顿挫、比例结构及和谐变化,体现了音乐的旋律。”

建筑在造型和颜色方面,一个元素重复的高低起伏的变化就产生了旋律。例如:哥特式建筑以其高耸的尖塔、修长的立柱、纷繁的花窗玻璃构造出空间的高旷、单纯、统一。错落有序的色块、统一有序的物体如同音乐中连续的、渐变的、起伏的节奏感。那一个个建筑中的装饰构成一个个空间的组合,犹如音乐中的一个个音符;那些精细的雕塑,刻着不同的人物,不一样的故事,就像音乐中那小小的一段乐章,而故事之间又是相互的联系,就串成了一部完整的世俗的交响。

建筑在空间方面,往往是一个序列,是一个需要在运动中逐步铺陈开来的、置于时间推移序列才能领略其全部魅力的一个空间序列。空间序列的展开既通过空间的连续和重复,体现出单纯而明确的节奏,也通过高低、起伏、浓淡、疏密、虚实、进退、间隔等有规律的变化,体现出抑扬顿挫的律动,这就颇似音乐中的序曲、扩展、渐强、高潮、重复、休止,能给人一种激动人心的旋律感。北京的故宫,从正阳门、端门、午门、太和门到太和殿、保和殿、中和殿直到景山,沿长达七华里的中轴线展开,十几个院落纵横交错,有前奏、有渐强、有高潮、有收束,几百所殿宇高低错落,有主体、有陪衬、有烘托,雄伟壮观的空间序列俨然一首有前序、渐强、高潮的交响乐;

2.建筑与音乐的结合

三、结语

参考文献:

[1] 林蒲田.《建筑与音乐》,《中外建筑》杂志社,1998.06

[2] 杨恩寰、梅宝树.《艺术学》,人民出版社,2002

[3] 吴硕贤.《音乐与建筑》,中国建筑工业出版社,2002

[4] 黄国新.《凝固的音乐》,同济大学出版社,2006

印度泰米尔地区的一座古老的庙宇里有一“音乐楼梯”。当踏着楼梯前进或用木头轻轻敲击时,便会发出不同的音高,这架楼梯是利用不同材质的花岗石反复加工,按音乐的规律在不同的位置上砌起来的。

还有一些富有“音乐性”建筑设计也体现出在外国的古代建筑中,如著名的的塔建筑—意大利比萨教堂的钟塔。塔的顶层装有七只音阶钟,能发出“do、re、mi、fa、sol、la、si”七个音,成了一座有趣的“音乐塔”。比萨斜塔是属于比萨大教堂的钟塔,每当教堂举行仪式时,塔上的音阶钟叮当敲响,发出悦耳动听的音乐。

在世界建筑设计领域不仅有音乐塔、音乐梯,而且还有能奏乐的桥。日本丰田市有座31米长的人行音乐桥,桥上两侧栏杆装有109块音响栏板,行人只要按顺序敲打栏板,就能奏出美妙的歌曲。

音乐可以节制我们的情感,也可以抒发我们的情感,韵律节奏拨动着我们沉寂的心灵之弦,唤起我们种种审美欲求。它是所有艺术创作者永远追随的音符。

  

  一、音乐艺术与建筑艺术的共通性

  

  音乐用有组织的乐音来表达人们的思想情感、反映现实生活的一种艺术。它最基本的要素是节奏和旋律,分为声乐和器乐两大门类。而建筑则是通过建筑物的形体、结构、空间、色彩、质地等方面的审美处理所建成供人们居住和活动场地的一种造型艺术。两者都通过某些相通的艺术规律在创造着美的作品。主要体现在以下几点上。

  1 

  2 两者都体现出极强的时代性。李泽厚在《美的历程》中总结了,所谓美就是有意味的形式,无论何种艺术它的审美性及它所呈现的最终形式都会随着时代的变迁而变化。而音乐艺术和建筑艺术不光具有这个特点,而且和双生子具有心灵感应一样,时代的变迁在两者身上产生的变化几乎是同步。我们可以从下表中看出两者之间那种奇妙的对应。

  3 两者都体现出了时空交错的艺术特点。时间的神秘感总是让历代的诗人、作家、哲学家们感到无比的困惑。时间总是呈螺旋形的态势上升,一方面春去冬来。潮水涨落让我们感到时间是不断循环的有机节奏,一方面美人迟暮、斗转星移又让我们感到“时间之箭”的一去不复返。时间总是逐渐的被体验到,而空间则包围在我们四周。时间与空间的最大区别在于,时间会流逝,而空间所在那一刻在某种意义上是唯一的。但是时间和空间却非常完美地在音乐和建筑中交织在了一起。音乐中的时间包含了双层的含义。一方面是音乐本身占据的可量化的时间呈线性向前缓缓推进,而一方面则是音乐所要表达的内容对时间进行了浓缩或者延展;而音乐中时间的双重性又是通过音乐的音高结构、织体空间、音色调配等元素构成的空间特征来得以体现的。建筑往往是一个空间序列,是一个需要在运动中逐步铺陈开来的、置于时间推移序列才能领略其全部魅力的一个空间序列,这一点在中国传统建筑中表现的尤为突出,因为中国传统建筑更强调空间之间的组合,而且更多的讲究空间的横向发展。音乐和建筑都出现了时空交错这个艺术特点,也许用爱因斯坦的相对论来解读更为合适,相对论中,把时间和空间作为四维存在来处理,所有的存在都是由三个空间维和一维的时间来确定的,这种四维特性在音乐和建筑艺术中得到了充分的体现。

  

  二、音乐艺术与建筑艺术的相异处

  

  三、建筑体现音乐感的设计方法

  

  1 

  2 建筑模拟曲式结构。建筑群中音乐感的创造可以通过模拟乐曲曲式的方法来达到,以北京四合院为例,其基本结构是由四面房屋围合起的一个庭院,一个这样的基本单位成为一进四合院,两个称为两进四合院,以此类推。两进以上的四合院由二门——垂花门或屏门连接沟通,四合院的正房、厢房之间,一般由抄手游廊连接沟通。这种建筑群的组合方式与器乐曲的基本结构非常接近,四面房屋围舍的庭院就是一个平衡、均称感强的乐段,以此为单位一层一层扩散开去,形成二部曲式、三部曲式等等。而在一个单体建筑中也可以通过主题重复的手法来创造有乐感的建筑结构,比如意大利文艺复兴时期的建筑理论家、手法主义建筑师帕拉第奥就很擅长用这种手法来赋予建筑节奏感,最有代表性的就是他在改建的意大利维琴察巴西利卡时运用的帕拉蒂奥母题。(图1)。

  3 建筑利用比例尺度体现音乐美感。黑格尔曾这样提示音乐与建筑的关系:“音乐和建筑最相近,因为像建筑一样,音乐把它的创造放在比例和结构上。”建筑的尺度把握是体现其美感的重要因素之一,形式美法则中的统一与均衡、对比与调和、性格与风格都是通过建筑各组成部分之间的尺度来得以体现。建筑物的长度、宽度、体积符合一定的比例关系,就能在视觉上产生类似于音乐的节奏感。虽然建筑和音乐都运用了数比美,但是两者最大的区别在于,建筑必须满足一定的功能性,因此建筑尺度的运用并不是完全自由的,建筑尺度的运用还必须考虑人机工程学、建筑规范、城市法规等等更多的因素,因此建筑师在建筑设计的时候必须在体现美感和满足功能两者之间找到一个平衡点。

  

  四、结语

  

  

to implement the situation to be checked.Two, on behalf of workers should work hard to improve their own quality, on behalf of the legitimate interests of workers, and truthfully reflect the opinions and demands of the masses of workers, law-abiding model good books work.Three, on behalf of the staff and workers to exercise democratic rights, any organization and individual shall not suppress obstruction and strike retaliation.The fourth chapter organization systemThe thirteenth generation of workers congress delegation chairman presided over the meeting discussion, the members of the presidium shall, operators, managers and technicians. Our company middle-level cadres, including workers, technical personnel, management staff should be more than half.The fourteenth section of the workers' Congress held once a year at least for each meeting, there must be 33 points more than two staff representatives attend the seats. In case of major matters by the general manager, the labor union of the company more than 1/3 staff or staff representatives proposal may convene the meeting. The workers' Congress elections held and resolutions must be approved by all workers represented by more than half.Twenty-fifth of the workers congress around increase and enhance the vitality of enterprises, promote the technology step by step, improve economic efficiency, for enterprise management, an important problem of distribution system and workers life and fix the issue. Staff and workers congress decided in its position within the scope of authority, without consent shall not be modified by the workers' Congress change.Table sixteenth employee representative congress is not in session, the need for temporary solutionAn important question by trade unions called post head meeting of representatives of the staff and workers, and consultation with the down of a workers' congress report confirmed. Head meeting may participate in according to the meeting invited the leadership of the company and other relevant personnel.The fifth chapter of the staff and workers' Congress and the trade unionSeventeenth work as a staff representative of the general assembly of the work of the organization, to undertake the following work:First, the organization of staff and workers elected representatives.Two, the collection of workers on behalf of the major issues of the proposal, presided over the work of representatives of the general assembly of the preparatory work and the organization of the meeting.Three, presided over the meeting of representatives of the staff and workers on behalf of the meeting.Four, the organization of specialized teams to investigate and research, to make recommendations to the workers' Congress, inspection and supervision and supervision of the implementation of the resolution of the general assembly, the implementation of the staff and workers to implement the resolution of the General Assembly on behalf of workers.Five, to the staff and workers into the democratic management of publicity and education, the organization of staff and workers on behalf of the learning policy, business and management knowledge, improve the quality of the staff representatives.Six, accept and deal with the complaints and suggestions of representatives of the staff and workers, maintenance of the legitimate rights and interests of workers.Seven, the organization of democratic management of its other work.The sixth chapter of the Department of the room, the team's democratic managementAccording to the specific circumstances, the eighteenth department may take the form of the employees' Congress or the employee's representative office to exercise democratic management power in the affairs of the authority of the Department.Nineteenth teams and groups of democratic management, by the workers directly participate in the team's trade union leaders and workers under the auspices of the activities carried out under the auspices of the team building by the trade union leader to assist the squad leader.The seventh chapter supplementary provisionsArticle twentieth the company's trade unions shall be responsible for the interpretation of these regulations.Article twenty-first of the regulations issued from the date of promulgation.Trade union workOne, promote the party's road line, principles, policies, the implementation of the higher level of union spirit, under the leadership of the Party committee and the completion of the work of the task.Two, strengthen democratic management, do a good job of the staff and workers' Congress held preparatory, and closing work, do not hold regular workers delegation head of the meeting, to ensure the smooth flow of the main channel of democracy.Three, adhere to the "22" maintenance of unity, do a good job in the labor dispute mediation work, the protection of the specific interests of the masses of the protection of the masses of workers from invasion.Four, strengthen the source participation, actively participate in the company's various policy strategies, measures to develop, and supervise the implementation of the line, reflecting the wishes of the majority of workers and requirements.Five, the organization of workers to carry out labor competition, to make reasonable proposals, small leather, small inventions to create a living activity, fully mobilize the enthusiasm of the production of workers.Six, to carry out the "warm and warm project" activities for the workers to run everything, practical things, to help solve the difficult life, do a good job of mutual assistance insurance and staff and workers to study and research work.Seven, establish and perfect the trade unions at all levels, achieve organization system network, fixed regularly held congress, a good new member of the development and transfer of work.Eight, establish and improve the levels of female workers organization, coordination of relevant departments to do a good job of female female workers "four period", play essential role of female workers into the sky, to promote the development of production, protect the legitimate rights and interests of women workers are not infringed.Nine, the group organized the staff to carry out health, education and teaching in music, small and diverse cultural and sports activities, active corporate cultural life, and strive to enhance the cohesion of the enterprise.Ten, to strengthen the financial management of the union, according to the trade union funds on time, to develop the use of the labor union funds budget, reasonable expenses, and do a good job in the collection and use of union dues.Union membership management systemArticle 1 this regulation is formulated in accordance with the relevant provisions of the articles of association of China's trade union, and with the company's actual situation.Second who meet the conditions for membership in the Union constitution and the provisions of the China < >, has signed a labor contract with the company staff can apply to join into the union.Third apply for unionized workers, shall I put out the application, and the Chinese National Federation of trade unions shall fill in "application form" and "trade union membership registration form", by the union approval group and grass-roots trade union audit, is a member of the union. Its membership from the union committee approved the date since.Fourth trade union members should actively participate in the activities of the union, the right to exercise their rights and fulfill their obligations, and timely payment of contributions.Fifth members will be free to go back. Members of the withdrawal will be written application, through the trade union group, approved by the labor union committee, from the day of withdrawal will stop paying their dues.Sixth members do not have the proper reason to continue for 6 months without payment of membership dues, do not participate in the processing will organize life, education refused to correct, should be regarded as automatic withdrawal.Article 77 where serious crimes and criminal sanctions by members of trade unions, by the Committee for discussion and decision, dismissed its membership.The relationship between the eighth members of the organization changes with the change of labor relations, the labor relations of the members change, the relationship between the members of the human relations with me to transfer, with the membership card to transfer.Ninth to master company membership, every month 25 days before this grass-roots trade unions shall fill in "grass-roots union members report > union office reported to the company, requirements in a timely manner, digital true and reliable.Tenth such as the management of the members of the lost Dangdang, causing unnecessary labor disputes, etc., will be held responsible for the relevant personnel.Eleventh handle refund formalities will have workers, and apply for membership, allowing it to re apply for the admission procedures.Twelfth members retired, retired, laid-off, insurable retained membership. Membership retention period from dues. Members maintain membership, no longer have the right to vote and to be elected in accordance with the relevant provisions of the state. In addition to enjoy the insurance benefits, the same treatment will no longer enjoy membership.Thirteenth the Ordinance shall be implemented as of the date of promulgation, and the right to interpret it shall be in the company's trade union committee.Union chairman job dutiesOne, in the company Party branch and the superior trade union under the leadership of the trade union committee, presided over this unit is responsible for the daily work. The trade union work plan, regular arrangement, examination, summing up the work, and timely reporting to the Party branch and trade unions.Two, the implementation of the implementation of the party's line, principles, policies, adhere to the production and operation of enterprises as the center of the heart and to democratic management as the focus, play the essential role of working mechanism of the Congress, the comprehensive carry out the activities of trade unions.Three, the implementation of democratic centralism principle, chaired by members of the general assembly or a member of Congress, trade union committee, democracy, brainstorming, the trade unions do to promote the harmonious development of enterprises and employees, the stability and unity of the home of workers.Four, support the work of enterprise administration, to participate in the development of the enterprise planning, reform and innovation and life and other important work to discuss the work, and actively put forward reasonable proposals.Five, do the preparatory work of the Congress, to complete the work of the congress delegate support.Six, pay attention to listen to the opinions and requirements of the majority of members, in a timely manner to the Party branch and the administrative counter reflection, the maintenance of the rights and interests of workers and the vital interests of the enterprise administrative staff to help improve the welfare of workers.Seven, the organization to carry out health and physical and mental health of the culture and entertainment, sports activities.Eight, responsible for the scope of trade unions in the political learning, assessment, awarding work.Nine, to assist the female staff members will do a good job of female staff and workers, to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of female workers.Ten, assist enterprises in the relevant aspects of the association, do a good job in the work of retired workers and their families.Eleven, the examination and approval of trade union funds.Twelve, timely completion of the party organization and the work of the superior union arrangement.Detailed rules for the implementation of the regulations of the staff and workers' CongressChapter I General ProvisionsThe first one according to the People's Republic of China constitution in < > and < theconsolidation industrial workers congress during the People's Republic of China regulations cases of industrial enterprises owned by the "spirit, the regulations implementing rules are formulated.The second company employee representative congress is the basic form of democratic management of the enterprise, is the right agency workers to exercise their democratic management. The main work is the trade union committee organization of the staff and workers' Congress, responsible for the daily work of the workers' Congress.Third employees in the company under the leadership of Party branch, to implement the party's line, principles and policies of needles, and state laws and regulations, correctly handle the state, collective, individual interests of the three, in the law within the prescribed scope of authority.Article 44 the Congress shall actively support the general manager of the company to exercise the management decision and the unified command of production, scientific research activities authority.Fifth to establish and improve the system of workers' Congress and other democratic management systems, security and play the role of trade union organizations and representatives of the staff and workers to review the major decision of enterprises in the trial supervision, administrative leadership, role and rights to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests and so on.Article 66 The Congress implement democratic centralism in the system.Second chapter of authorityThe Seventh Congress exercised the following powersFirst, the right to consider proposalsListen to the general manager of the regular work report; review; business policy, long-term long-term planning, the annual plan; basic construction plan; major technical transformation scheme;; employee training plan; financial budget is put forward opinions and suggestions; gold funds allocation and use case.Two, the review of the consent or vetoThe salary adjustment scheme of the enterprise; the bonus scheme; the labor protection measures; the reward measures for the employees and the important rules and regulations of the enterprise are reviewed.Three, to consider the right to decide:For workers Fulili fund; workers housing allocation; other important matters relating to workers Living welfare review will be decided.Four, appraisal, supervision powerLeading cadres at all levels of supervision, regular review, general manager of the office should fulfill the duties and objectives of supervision, the layers of cadres to the general manager of science can be put forward to praise, reward, punishment, promotion or group of criticism, dismissed suggestions.Five, the right to democratic electionsAccording to the superior department in charge of the deployment of the competent authorities or the approval of the higher authorities, the staff representatives of the people's democratic recommendation or the election of enterprise administrative leadership, and the election results reported to the competent authorities for approval.The Eighth Congress will be the taskFirst, the party and government departments to do a good job of the "two" civilization, the workers of the ideological, discipline and professional ethics education.Two, Congress should support education workers of the company general manager for the mobilization of workers to carry out the exercise of the powers, the provisions, abide by discipline, efforts to complete the task.Three, close contact with the general staff and workers, to safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of workers, and truthfully reflect the views and requirements of the workers.Staff representative of the third chapterThe ninth company employees entitled to political rights in accordance with the provisions of the law, can be elected as the representative of the staff.Tenth representatives of the staff and workers to produce, should take the Department, the workshop as a unit, by the workers directly elected, not appointed by the leadership of the leadership. The number of its representatives should be accounted for 10-20%. of the total number of workersEleventh a staff representative should be a worker, technical personnel, management personnel, workers and other leading cadres group consisting of young workers and female workers should be accounted for a proper proportion. A guest, attend on behalf of several seats.According to the needs of the work and the number of representatives of the composition of a number of representatives of the table group, elected leader, deputy leader.Twelfth representatives of the staff and workers of real implementation of the permanent system, every three to four years of election election once, may be re elected.Article thirteenth supplementary supplementary of the staff and workers' representativesThe representatives of the staff and workers from the unit or away from retirement, on behalf of automatically disqualified, on behalf of the delegation to the original vacancy shall be in accordance with the provisions of the election.Replace the fourteenth representatives of the staff and workersThere are the representatives of the employees, who have the right to change the unit:1, due to illegal law and discipline punishment;2, often without reason not to participate in the activities of the staff representatives of the staff and the organization of the work of the organization, a serious dereliction of duty;3, because of unpaid leave, sick leave and long-term, full-time study and so on, not to participate in the activities of the post of the staff and workers' congress;4, removed from the unit, from the original delegation.The rights of the representatives of the fifteenth employeesFirst, the incumbent will have the right to vote in the election, the right to vote and the right to vote.Two, have the right to participate in the Congress and its working mechanism in the company. Check all relevant departments to carry out the workers congress resolution and proposal to implement the situation, have the right to the right to participate in the personnel of the company leadership question.Three, to participate in the organization of the staff and workers' Congress of the activities of the organization and occupy production or work hours, according to the normal attendance to enjoy the treatment of the case.Four, the exercise of democratic rights of workers' representatives. Any organization or individual person shall stop, obstruct and take revenge complex.Five, during the term of office workers, in addition to personal serious negligence, enterprises may not perform their duties on behalf of the reasons for the lifting of the labor contract or employment changes.Obligations of the sixteenth employees' representativesOne, to study the principles, policies, laws and regulations of the party and the state, and constantly improve the political consciousness, technical and technical level and the ability to participate in the management.Two, in close contact with the masses, representing the legitimate rights and interests of workers, truthfully reflect the opinions and demands of the masses, workers, seriously implement the Congress resolution. To do good work, Congress gave the patience to do ideological education of the masses education work.Three, adhere to the basic principles of the four basic principles, and abide by the national laws, regulations and rules and regulations, labor discipline, do their own work.Four, do a business owner, actively participate in the democratic management of enterprises, as well as to their own political obligations, really play the role of staff representatives.The fourth chapter organization systemThe twenty-seventh Congress Chairman presided over the meeting. All the members of the presidium shall have the workers, technical staff, management staff and leading cadres. The technical workers, technical personnel, management personnel should be more than Banbanshu.The eighteenth Congress will be held once a year. Each meeting will be there must be more than 2/3 of workers' representatives.In case of major events, the proposal by the general manager, a trade union or more than one of the staff representatives of three points, cocoa held a provisional meeting.Behalf of the general assembly of the representatives of the general assembly to elect and make a resolution, must be approved by the majority of all representatives of the staff and workers.The nineteenth Congress should focus on enhancing enterprise vitality, promote technological progress, improve the economic benefit for enterprise management, an important problem of the distribution system and other aspects of the life of workers to determine the issue.Twentieth items will function in its decision within the scope of its powers, not by the workers' Congress agrees not to repair.Twenty-first post Congress may according to the needs, set up a number of dry mattersquickly. (23) Gao Changhai night rescued compatriots in January 1943, the Japanese control after Su Jiahu along the highway, to intensify guerrilla "raids". One day, the Japanese army from Wuzhen area caught 53 "Shina" is held in s

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